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Others thought the wonder should be left to appease the gods, and on this course they settled in the end; for its lot was to fall, when the city received the great wooden horse, where all the best Achaeans waited to deal out death and fate to the Trojans. What end, great king, do you grant to their labors? Cease from fear, Cytherea. When he encounters his disguised mother not far from Carthage later in Aeneid 1, he introduces himself as follows Aeneid 1. I am pious Aeneas. I bring in my ships with me my household gods, snatched from the enemy.
My fame reaches beyond the heavens; my homeland in Italy, and the race of high Jove I seek. I embarked the Phrygian sea with a score of ships, and followed my granted fates; my goddess mother showed the way; scarcely seven ships remain, shattered by the waves and the east wind. If only fortune would favor the deed you describe. Let the remnant, I beg you, set sail through the waves, let them reach the Laurentine Tiber if I seek what is granted, if the Fates accord them those walls.
And I have my own fates against theirs, to devastate with my sword the race guilty of stealing my bride; the sons of Atreus are not alone in this sorrow, and to take up arms is not for Mycene alone. If the Trojans have sought out Italy without your leave and against your will, let them pay the price and aid them not; but if they have followed so many signs given by gods and shades, why can anyone now 35 overturn your commands or create new fates?
Indeed, her first actual appearance in the Aeneid dwells not so much on her suitability for marriage—although as we have seen, Virgil briefly mentions this at Aeneid 7. When we first encounter Lavinia in person at Aeneid 7.
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That was taken as both wondrous and fearsome to see: for they sang she would shine in fame and fate 80 herself, but portend a great war for her people. I cannot keep him from Latin realms; so be it. At this price to their nations let father and son-in-law be joined: your dowry, maiden, shall be Trojan and Latin blood, and your bridesmaid Bellona awaits.
As we have seen, Virgilian scholars since the time of Servius auctus have been divided over why the poet chooses to invoke the Muse traditionally associated with erotic poetry for assistance with the horrida bella of Aeneid As I hope to have shown, however, these two interpretations are not incompatible. Ad nos uix tenuis famae perlabitur aura : F.
Williams, ed. Fordyce, ed. Problemi e metodo. Studi in onore di E. Paratore Bologna , ; S. Horsfall, ed. A Commentary Leiden , ; A.
Morales, edd. Rengakos, edd. Mynors, ed. Vergili Maronis Opera Oxford All quotations from Virgil are drawn from this text. All translations are my own. Hagen, edd , Seruii grammatici qui feruntur in Vergilii Carmina Commentarii Leipzig , ad loc. Hubbard, edd. For this view, see Klingner , ; Basson , ; Fordyce , 64; Harrison , ; Mariotti , n19; Thomas , 64 n11; Kyriakidis , ; Heil , See also S. Williams , Horsfall , Pavlock , Fernandelli Mariotti He bound them by various oaths to follow him whithersoever he should lead, and was even desirous of taking their chief leaders with him to the city of Nonacris, that he might swear them to his cause by the waters of the Styx.
For the waters of Styx, as the Arcadians say, are in that city, and this is the appearance they present: you see a little water, dripping from a rock into a basin, which is fenced round by a low wall. Nonacris, where this fountain is to be seen, is a city of Arcadia near Pheneus.
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So Cleomenes came back; but had no sooner returned than he, who had never been altogether of sound mind, was smitten with downright madness. This he showed by striking every Spartan he met upon the face with his sceptre. On his behaving thus, and showing that he was gone quite out of his mind, his kindred imprisoned him, and even put his feet in the stocks. While so bound, finding himself left alone with a single keeper, he asked the man for a knife. The keeper at first refused, whereupon Cleomenes began to threaten him, until at last he was afraid, being only a helot, and gave him what he required.
Cleomenes had no sooner got the steel than, beginning at his legs, he horribly disfigured himself, cutting gashes in his flesh, along his legs, thighs, hips, and loins, until at last he reached his belly, which he likewise began to gash, whereupon in a little time he died. The Greeks generally think that this fate came upon him because he induced the Pythoness to pronounce against Demaratus; the Athenians differ from all others in saying that it was because he cut down the sacred grove of the goddesses when he made his invasion by Eleusis; while the Argives ascribe it to his having taken from their refuge and cut to pieces certain argives who had fled from battle into a precinct sacred to Argus, where Cleomenes slew them, burning likewise at the same time, through irreverence, the grove itself.
This stream is reported to flow from the Stymphalian lake, the waters of which empty themselves into a pitch-dark chasm, and then as they say reappear in Argos, where the Argives call them the Erasinus. Cleomenes, having arrived upon the banks of this river, proceeded to offer sacrifice to it, but, in spite of all that he could do, the victims were not favourable to his crossing.
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So he said that he admired the god for refusing to betray his countrymen, but still the Argives should not escape him for all that. He then withdrew his troops, and led them down to Thyrea, where he sacrificed a bull to the sea, and conveyed his men on shipboard to Nauplia in the Tirynthian territory. And now their fear was not so much lest they should be worsted in open fight as lest some trick should be practised on them; for such was the danger which the oracle given to them in common with the Milesians seemed to intimate.
The oracle ran as follows Time shall be when the female shall conquer the male, and shall chase him Far away - gaining so great praise and honour in Argos; Then full many an Argive woman her cheeks shall mangle Hence, in the times to come 'twill be said by the men who are unborn, "Tamed by the spear expired the coiled terrible serpent. At the coincidence of all these things the Argives were greatly cast down; and so they resolved that they would follow the signals of the enemy's herald.
Having made this resolve, they proceeded to act as follows: whenever the herald of the Lacedaemonians gave an order to the soldiers of his own army, the Argives did the like on their side. Which the Lacedaemonians did accordingly, and fell upon the Argives just as, following the signal, they had begun their repast; whereby it came to pass that vast numbers of the Argives were slain, while the rest, who were more than they which died in the fight, were driven to take refuge in the grove of Argus hard by, where they were surrounded, and watch kept upon them.
Now the ransom of prisoners among the Peloponnesians is fixed at two minae the man. So Cleomenes had these persons called forth severally, to the number of fifty, or thereabouts, and massacred them. All this while they who remained in the enclosure knew nothing of what was happening; for the grove was so thick that the people inside were unable to see what was taking place without.
But at last one of their number climbed up into a tree and spied the treachery; after which none of those who were summoned would go forth. As the flames spread he asked a deserter "Who was the god of the grove?
I fear me thy oracle has now got its accomplishment. When however he would have slain the victim on the altar himself, the priest forbade him, as it was not lawful he said for a foreigner to sacrifice in that temple. At this Cleomenes ordered his helots to drag the priest from the altar and scourge him, while he performed the sacrifice himself, after which he went back to Sparta. To this he answered - whether truly or falsely I cannot say with certainty - but at any rate his answer to the charge was that "so soon as he discovered the sacred precinct which he had taken to belong to Argos, he directly imagined that the oracle had received its accomplishment; he therefore thought it not good to attempt the town, at the least until he had inquired by sacrifice, and ascertained if the god meant to grant him the place, or was determined to oppose his taking it.
So he offered in the temple of Juno, and when the omens were propitious, immediately there flashed forth a flame of fire from the breast of the image; whereby he knew of a surety that he was not to take Argos.
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For if the flash had come from the head, he would have gained the town, citadel and all; but as it shone from the breast, he had done so much as the god intended. Then these latter cast out the slaves, and got the city back under their own rule; while the slaves who had been driven out fought a battle and won Tiryns. After this for a time there was peace between the two; but a certain man, a soothsayer, named Cleander, who was by race a Phigalean from Arcadia, joined himself to the slaves, and stirred them up to make a fresh attack upon their lords.
Then were they at war with one another by the space of many years; but at length the Argives with much trouble gained the upper hand. But his own countrymen declare that his madness proceeded not from any supernatural cause whatever, but only from the habit of drinking wine unmixed with water, which he learnt of the Scyths. These nomads, from the time that Darius made his inroad into their country, had always had a wish for revenge.
They therefore sent ambassadors to Sparta to conclude a league, proposing to endeavour themselves to enter Media by the Phasis, while the Spartans should march inland from Ephesus, and then the two armies should join together in one.