Blood Promises and Other Commitments
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These hands have reached for lovers in the night. Do you see this mouth? It has spoken truth. It has cursed useless men and lifted up friends and loved my beautiful babies. It has formed I love yous that went out into the world, never to return to me. Do you see these feet? They have felt the Earth turning beneath them while holding on to the sky above.
They have run many miles- not in fear but in determination to be stronger, to run further, to grow through the pain of all the changes.
These feet have carried me to new places, have carried me away from unhealthy situations, and have brought me to this place even now- callused and scarred as they are, as I am. Do you see this hair? Rendered wild by wind and humidity, twisting in the wind brought by the weather or my power. Maybe my hair has been rendered as wild as I have been, changed by the changing weather and growing all the while. Do you see these eyes? They are old souls, these eyes.
Their scars are old scars, generational ones and ancient ones. They hold revelations and power, and if they hold your own, you will not forget them. When all is said and done, healthy relationships take effort to maintain. Set and honor healthy boundaries. Remain flexible rather than looking at situations as all-or-nothing. Manage your emotions the best that you can and offer your partner the encouragement and support they need to do the same. Together, you and your partner alone can identify and transform unhelpful patterns, and take responsibility for your part in the relationship.
Making these promises to yourself as individuals will ensure that your commitment to one another is built upon a solid foundation of self-respect. You are now subscribed Be on the lookout for a welcome email in your inbox!
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Main Navigation. Saved Articles. Gift Purchases. Contact Support. Log Out. Our online classes and training programs allow you to learn from experts from anywhere in the world. Explore Classes. Written by Leslie Ralph. Share on: Group 7 Created with Sketch. Group 9 Created with Sketch. Group 10 Created with Sketch. Group 11 Created with Sketch. Group 7 Created with Sketch. Email Created with Sketch.
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Sex sex. With Esther Perel. However, while there are an increasing number of groups involved, the field remains small with some arguing that the technology remains early stage. These are used to set a framework of meaning for interpreting the work conducted so far and the work proposed for the future. These accounts are also important to enrolling financial, scientific, institutional, and public support for continued development.
Such narratives are, inevitably, contested by detractors of the technology, or proponents of other technologies, who provide counter-narratives that articulate different frameworks of meaning and seek to align financial, scientific, and institutional resources in a different configuration. Promissory narratives are essential in mobilizing funding Borup et al , , bringing together interdisciplinary or multidisciplinary teams in the pursuit of a common goal Lyall et al , , and in justifying the funding of research that represents the best value for money.
Through these mechanisms, and others, expectations offer the possibility of bringing into being the world they conjure through performative acts Brown and Michael, , The downside of promissory narratives is the susceptibility to path dependency and lock-in Liebowitz and Margolis, , where a change away from a nonoptimal technology may prove too costly.
Callon argues that successful economic theories engage in world-making by pointing to a world and then bringing it into being. MacKenzie articulates a typology of performative mechanisms in financial markets to articulate how some equations — such as the Black—Scholes — lead people and markets to act in accordance with its predictions. Importantly, the claim is that only a select few economic actions have the performative capacity to bring themselves into being.
As MacKenzie notes, some have no impact on practice and, of those that do shape practice, some make markets less like those anticipated with only a subset molding markets into something like what they predict. Callon argues that economic activities with the potential for performativity extend beyond formal economic modeling to include other technologies and forms of knowledge. Our work follows the move within this literature that steps away from financial markets to include diverse settings including fishery quotas Holm and Nolde Nielsen, , consumer preference testing Muniesa, , and computer system procurement Pollock and Williams, In what follows, we explore the tentative performativities of cultured blood and cultured meat as novel and early-stage innovations to inspect the market situations both as they exist today and as they are imagined in the future.
This paper draws upon two projects that were conducted independently. Emma King studied the UK cultured blood project from to conducting laboratory observation, documentary analysis, and outreach work alongside the cultured blood team King, Emma and Catherine Lyall then conducted a study of public reactions to cultured blood, using focus groups and interviews Lyall and King, ; King, ; King and Lyall, This focus group and interview research was led from Anonymous University and funded by the same Scottish Funding Council grant funding the scientific research.
During this process, Emma and Catherine were embedded within the cultured blood team, attending regular meetings and conference calls in which the scientists spoke of their visions for cultured blood. This work found that there was overall positivity about the use of cultured red blood cells, with concerns focused on the potential problems of commercialization and future restriction on access to blood, rather than on concerns with the technology itself. The second project, conducted by Neil Stephens, reports documentary analysis and an interview and observational study conducted with the scientists, funders, and proponents of cultured meat technology.
This project commenced in with the bulk of the 42 interviews conducted between and , and ongoing observational and documentary analysis continuing ever since. Neil has attended all international meetings of the field since , including the press conference in which the cultured burger was tasted. In , the authors commenced discussions on developing comparative work across the independent projects leading to an extended period of dialogue. This included a joint meeting with the scientific team conducting the cultured blood research in during which the comparative work conducted to date was presented and discussed to generate further topics for consideration.
Following this, the authors used their existing data sets to conduct a formal thematic comparison on eight themes: promissory narratives, future economic imaginaries, anticipated regulations, institutional forms, laboratory work, ontological status, socio-ethical debate, and the cultural and media landscape. The comparison of the first six of these themes constitutes the substantive focus of this paper, while the comparison of the remaining two informs our analysis but features less prominently. The dialogic comparative work necessitated a further period of data collection during — through ongoing contact with the practitioner community and an updated literature review on recent developments in cultured meat and extending the international focus of our work on cultured blood.
Collectively, the two studies on cultured blood, the extended study of cultured meat, and the sustained subsequent cross-analysis of both constitute a robust and significant dataset from which our argument is drawn. These classifications allow us to highlight shared narratives, while also making explicit how they are differently constructed in the biomedical and agri-food sectors. The achievability narrative : Both cultured meat and cultured blood suggest that significant upscale of stem cell tissue engineering is possible. Currently, blood use in the UK alone stands at around 2.
Estimating global blood markets is difficult because many countries with developing healthcare systems currently lack a blood transfusion service that can provide comparative figures. Nevertheless, replacing just UK blood donation with a tissue engineering-based system represents significant upscale compared with any existing stem cell technology today. Yet, blood consumption is minute compared to global meat consumption, estimated to be , thousand tonnes of tissue in alone Henchion et al , , and rising.
Other People’s Blood | Issue 34 | n+1
The boldness of the promissory narrative that suggests the possibility of these quantities is captured in a comment by a plenary speaker and bioengineer at the Cultured Meat Symposium, who claimed that currently there is not enough stainless steel in the world to build the bioreactors required.
For both cultured blood and cultured meat, the narrative of achievability is bold and far beyond that of any other current stem cell technology. The crisis narrative : Both technologies are linked to a crisis narrative about pessimistic futures that should be guarded against. For cultured blood, the crisis point focuses upon the pressure on the blood transfusion services over the coming decades.
Falling donor numbers, growing and aging populations, and the increasing costs of testing and processing are core justifications for pursuing alternatives to the current system.
In cultured meat, the crisis is quite different; it is a crisis of the environment, land use, and population. This is distinctive among tissue engineering technologies as it invokes an environmental promissory narrative not found anywhere else within the field. The minimized infection narrative : Both cultured blood and cultured meat proponents suggest that their cultured tissue will be less infected than the tissue they seek to replace. The main concerns are both diseases found in tissue and the antibiotics used to control these diseases.
In the cultured meat case, the focus is animal-borne disease based on precedents such as CJD and bird flu found in farming environments. Since a cultured meat system uses significantly fewer animals and the tissue eaten is cultured without a living body, the incidence of disease and antibiotic use is thought to be significantly reduced. Stricter controls are leading to lower eligible donor numbers and increased processing costs for donated blood, in addition to preparing for future unknown TTIs. The issue of antibiotics is less pronounced in cultured blood than it is in cultured meat, as many countries place restrictions on donors who have recently used antibiotics.
The global poverty narrative : Both cultured blood and cultured meat are associated with global poverty. For cultured meat, this relates to global food poverty and justice issues around hunger and malnutrition. With cultured blood, this is primarily articulated as being about access to safe blood in developing nations, especially areas with fast developing healthcare systems but high levels of endemic infections.
However, it is noticeable that in both cultured meat and cultured blood there is uncertainty within the respective research communities about the deliverability on these issues.