Hexagon - The Sacrifice: Nuclear Protection in Space

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In this study, the researchers used steel-steel CMF, meaning that both the spheres and the matrix were made of steel. For the study, researchers manufactured a hard armor system consisting of a ceramic faceplate, a CMF core and a thin back plate made of aluminum. The armor was tested using. The armor was tested with the rounds being fired at impact velocities from meters per second up to meters per second. There is additional work we could do to make it even better. For example, we would like to optimize the adhesion and thickness of the ceramic, CMF and aluminum layers, which may lead to even lower total weight and improved efficiency of the final armor.


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In previous work, Rabiei and her collaborators demonstrated that CMF could block blast pressure and fragmentation at 5, feet per second from high explosive incendiary rounds detonating only 18 inches away. Her team also showed that CMF could stop a 7. For context, the National Institute of Justice standard allows up to 44 millimeters indentation in the back of armor.

In addition, Rabiei's group has shown that CMFs, in addition to being lightweight, are very effective at shielding X-rays, gamma rays and neutron radiation -- and can handle fire and heat twice as well as the plain metals they are made of. First author of the paper is Jacob Marx, a Ph.

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Army Combat Capabilities Development Command. Materials provided by North Carolina State University. Original written by Matt Shipman. The star meanwhile is transformed from a cool giant into a hot, compact star that produces intense ultraviolet radiation and a fast wind of particles moving at about 6 million miles per hour.

The interaction of the UV radiation and the fast wind with the ejected red giant envelope creates the planetary nebula, shown by the large spherical shell in the bigger image. In rare cases, nuclear fusion reactions in the region surrounding the star's core heat the outer envelope of the star so much that it temporarily becomes a red giant again.

The sequence of events -- envelope ejection followed by a fast stellar wind -- is repeated on a much faster scale than before, and a small-scale planetary nebula is created inside the original one. In a sense, the planetary nebula is reborn. Dry Ice Spiders of Mars Have you ever played with dry ice with leather gloves on of course!

Perhaps you've made Halloween punch? Set a spooky scene?

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The fun comes from the fact that dry ice goes directly from solid to vapor, unlike water ice which melts into liquid when it gets warm. On Mars the seasonal polar caps are composed of dry ice carbon dioxide. In the springtime as the sun shines on the ice, it turns from solid to gas and causes erosion of the surface. I enjoy the incredible diversity of forms that the erosion takes, and am studying the factors that give us "spiders", "caterpillars", or "starbursts", all colloquial words for what we rigorously name "araneiform" terrain.


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This particular example shows eroded channels filled with bright ice, in contrast to the muted red of the underlying ground. In the summer the ice will disappear into the atmosphere, and we will see just the channels of ghostly spiders carved in the surface. This is truly Martian terrain - this type of erosion does not take place anywhere naturally on earth because our climate is too warm.

Stellar Stellar Cluster Like a July 4 fireworks display, a young, glittering collection of stars looks like an aerial burst.

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The cluster is surrounded by clouds of interstellar gas and dust—the raw material for new star formation. The nebula, located 20, light-years away in the constellation Carina, contains a central cluster of huge, hot stars, called NGC This environment is not as peaceful as it looks. Ultraviolet radiation and violent stellar winds have blown out an enormous cavity in the gas and dust enveloping the cluster, providing an unobstructed view of the cluster. Most of the stars in the cluster were born around the same time but differ in size, mass, temperature, and color.

The course of a star's life is determined by its mass, so a cluster of a given age will contain stars in various stages of their lives, giving an opportunity for detailed analyses of stellar life cycles.

Thorium.

NGC also contains some of the most massive stars known. These huge stars live fast and die young, burning through their hydrogen fuel quickly and ultimately ending their lives in supernova explosions. Star clusters like NGC provide important clues to understanding the origin of massive star formation in the early, distant universe. Astronomers also use massive clusters to study distant starbursts that occur when galaxies collide, igniting a flurry of star formation.

The proximity of NGC makes it an excellent lab for studying such distant and momentous events. This Hubble Space Telescope image was captured in August and December with the Wide Field Camera 3 in both visible and infrared light, which trace the glow of sulfur, hydrogen, and iron. O'Connell University of Virginia , F. W44 is the vast purple sphere that dominates the left hand side of this image, and measures about light-years across. XMM-Newton data reveal that the remnant is filled with X-ray emission from extremely hot gas.

North is towards the bottom left of the image; east is to the top right. Image: Herschel: Q. Map of Tethys This global map of Saturn's moon Tethys was created using images taken during Cassini spacecraft flybys. The map is an equidistant simple cylindrical projection and has a scale of meters feet per pixel at the equator in the full size version.


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The mean radius of Tethys used for projection of this map is The resolution of the map is 32 pixels per degree. The central galaxy in this image is a gigantic elliptical galaxy designated 4C A prominent spiral galaxy seen from "above" shines in the lower part of the image, while examples of galaxies viewed edge-on also populate the cosmic landscape.

In the optical and near-infrared light captured to make this image, 4C But when viewed in longer wavelengths the galaxy takes on a very different appearance. Dust-piercing radio waves reveal plumes emanating from the core, where a supermassive black hole spews out twin jets of material. Astronomers must study objects such as 4C Observing 4C Titan Vortex Titan's swirling south-polar vortex stands out brightly against the other clouds of the south pole. Cassini is monitoring the development of the south polar vortex to help understand seasonal changes on Saturn's largest moon.

For a color image of the south polar vortex on Titan, see PIA For a movie of the vortex, see PIA This view looks toward the trailing hemisphere of Titan miles, kilometers across. North on Titan is up and rotated 36 degrees to the left.

The image was taken with the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera on Aug. The view was acquired at a distance of approximately , miles 1. Image scale is 4 miles 7 kilometers per pixel. Jupiter's Spots In what's beginning to look like a case of planetary measles, a third red spot has appeared alongside its cousins — the Great Red Spot and Red Spot Jr.

This third red spot, which is a fraction of the size of the two other features, lies to the west of the Great Red Spot in the same latitude band of clouds. The new red spot was previously a white oval-shaped storm.

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The change to a red color indicates its swirling storm clouds are rising to heights like the clouds of the Great Red Spot. One possible explanation is that the red storm is so powerful it dredges material from deep beneath Jupiter's cloud tops and lifts it to higher altitudes where solar ultraviolet radiation — via some unknown chemical reaction — produces the familiar brick color. Detailed analysis of the visible-light images taken by Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 on May 9 and 10, and near-infrared adaptive optics images taken by the W.

Keck telescope on May 11, is revealing the relative altitudes of the cloud tops of the three red ovals. Because all three oval storms are bright in near-infrared light, they must be towering above the methane in Jupiter's atmosphere, which absorbs the Sun's infrared light and so looks dark in infrared images. Turbulence and storms first observed on Jupiter more than two years ago are still raging, as revealed in the latest pictures.

The Hubble and Keck images also reveal the change from a rather bland, quiescent band surrounding the Great Red Spot just over a year ago to one of incredible turbulence on both sides of the spot. Red Spot Jr. The Great Red Spot has persisted for as long as to years, based on early telescopic observations.

Destination Mars: human exploration possible in ten years

If the new red spot and the Great Red Spot continue on their courses, they will encounter each other in August, and the small oval will either be absorbed or repelled from the Great Red Spot. The Hubble and Keck images may support the idea that Jupiter is in the midst of global climate change, as first proposed in by Phil Marcus, a professor of mechanical engineering at the University of California, Berkeley. The planet's temperatures may be changing by 15 to 20 degrees Fahrenheit.

The giant planet is getting warmer near the equator and cooler near the South Pole.