Mightier than the Sword (Sabine and Jordan Investigations)
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Something Oberon leaves unsaid, but which the play makes us hear: violence and animality. In yet another twist of this reversible world, Titania implicitly becomes one of the creatures she fears. Certainly Plato does not know into which category to put women: rational animal or irrational beast; for Nature has placed within their bodies, in a hidden intestinal place, an animal an organ not found in men […] from the sharp pangs and painful throbbing of which since that organ is all sinews and quickened sensitivity their whole body is convulsed, all their senses ravished, all their emotions heightened and all their thoughts confused […].
Plato is right to call it an animal, recognizing in it as he does its own proper motions Rabelais The animal submerged within the refined figure of the fairy queen is exhibited in the disastrous metaplay of the mechanicals as the figure or the lion. For Bottom […], femininity presupposes monstrosity, and thus the lion becomes the one character in the play with whom Thisbe has most in common Boehrer The Amazons have always been portrayed as liminal beings: half-human half-animal, essentially other, living on the edges of the world.
In another such nostalgic moment, Titania reminisces about the symbiotic bond she shared with the mother of the Indian child she wants to keep all to herself 2. According to Boehrer,. And it turns out that this overlap at the exact centre of the play—in the fifth scene 3.
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Within the maze of the wood, Bottom the ass may also be interpreted as a parody of the Minotaur 15 ; or even as a masculine, asinine version of Philomela, if one listens to his song as a parodic echo of the lullaby sung to Titania by the fairies in the previous scene Since the sexual revolution of the s, many a production has exploited these bestial elements to stage the encounter as an explicitly zoophilic scene, featuring a clearly phallic Bottom and an overtly lustful, sexually rapacious Titania Furthermore, Shakespeare characterizes this odd couple in a staged chiasmus which blurs the contours of their monstrosity: Bottom is beastly in appearance, but he behaves like the gentleman he always tried to be; conversely, Titania is sexually aroused, but her appearance has not changed and she does not look the part of the animal she acts like This ambiguity on the stage is meant to cause in the spectator a reaction suspended between unease and laughter, or anxiety and pleasure, with all the possibilities comprised in between these polarities—a reaction represented on the stage, diverse as it should be, by the different characters witnessing the scene.
O strange! We are haunted. Pray, masters; fly, masters. O, how mine eyes do loathe his visage now! The cut between 3. When the play thus falls silent in between the two scenes, a vacuum opens in the text and performance for the audience to step into.
SNUG as Lion You, ladies, you whose gentle hearts do fear The smallest monstrous mouse that creeps on floor, May now perchance both quake and tremble here When lion rough in wildest rage doth roar. This is indeed a disfigurement on more than one score. Western dualism by no means begins with Descartes, but it is he who laid the foundation for its modern radicalization.
Human and animal, just as soul and body, mental and physical, come to be thought as much more strictly separate, mutually exclusive categories than before […]. All seems well that ends well on hearing this rhyming couplet which should wrap up the play—all the more so as it is spoken by the powerful ruler of the city, and as all the characters exeunt after the pronouncement. Who better to lead this sonorous bestiary than the roaring—and no longer speaking—lion, back in power after his disfigurement on the metastage:.
Now the hungry lion roars, And the wolf behowls the moon, Whilst the heavy ploughman snores, All with weary task fordone. Now the wasted brads do glow Whilst the screech-owl, screeching loud, Puts the wretch that lies in woe In remembrance of a shroud.
There is always something missed. Weaving spiders, come not here; Hence, you long-legged spinners, hence; Beetles black, approach not near; Worm nor snail do no offence. The harmony of sonorous effects is thus sensed at a subconscious or gut level, whereas the lexical melody is made sense of as the syntactic units unfold, somehow like musical phrases, consciously perceived from the distance of the intellect.
But […] where does this gaze come from? Where does the gaze come from indeed? Is not what we are searching for, in this animal gaze, ourselves as hidden from ourselves? So, goodnight unto you all. Give me your hands, if we be friends, And Robin shall restore amends. Boehrer, Bruce Thomas. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, Chiari-Lasserre, Sophie.
Coetzee, John Maxwell. Elizabeth Costello. London: Vintage Books, Discourse on Method - Meditations on First Philosophy. Leipzig: BN Publishing, Paris: Dictionnaires Le Robert, Faas, Ekbert. Ted Hugues: the Unaccomodated Universe. Santa Barbara: Black Sparrow Press, Freud, Sigmund. James Strachey. London: The Hogarth Press, Paris: Odile Jacob, If the viral protein kinase is important in the pathogenesis of KSHV lymphoproliferative disease or lymphoma, the kinase may present a very good target for pharmacologic therapies.
However, we demonstrated here that selective deletion of Smad4 in NK cells actually led to dramatically reduced tumor cell rejection and augmented tumor cell metastases, reduced murine CMV clearance, as well as impeded NK cell homeostasis and maturation. Our study identifies and mechanistically characterizes unusual functions and pathways for SMAD4 in governing innate immune responses to cancer and viral infection, as well as NK cell development. Caligiuri, Jianhua Yu. The clinical benefits that have been achieved for a group of cancer patients with metastatic disease on checkpoint inhibitor therapy have kindled intense interest in understanding tumor-induced escape from T lymphocyte control.
Other lymphoid cells also participate in tumor control; in particular, NK cells can limit hematogenous cancer metastasis spread and are also subject to negative regulation by developing cancers. In this issue of the JCI, Li and colleagues define an unanticipated role for the stress-induced protein CD in cancer metastasis. The presence of CD on the surface of cancer cells was shown to promote tumor invasiveness, while its upregulation in tumor environment—infiltrating myeloid cells restrained antitumor immunity by impairing antitumor T lymphocytes and NK cell function.
Together, these results support further exploration of strategies for targeting CD In the mids, whole-cell pertussis wP vaccines were associated with local and systemic adverse events that prompted their replacement with acellular pertussis aP vaccines in many high-income countries. In the past decade, rates of pertussis disease have increased in children receiving only aP vaccines.
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We compared the immune responses to aP boosters in individuals who received their initial doses with either wP or aP vaccines using activation-induced marker AIM assays. These differences appeared to be T cell specific, since equivalent increases of antibody titers and plasmablasts after aP boost were seen in both groups. In conclusion, our data suggest that there are long-lasting effects and differences in polarization and proliferation of T cell responses in adults originally vaccinated with aP compared with those that initially received wP, despite repeated acellular boosters.
Petro, Lisa A. Renin cells are crucial for survival — they control fluid-electrolyte and blood pressure homeostasis, vascular development, regeneration, and oxygen delivery to tissues. During embryonic development, renin cells are progenitors for multiple cell types that retain the memory of the renin phenotype. When there is a threat to survival, those descendants are transformed and reenact the renin phenotype to restore homeostasis. Using renin cells at various stages of stimulation, we identified regions in the genome where the chromatin is open for transcription, mapped histone modifications characteristic of active enhancers such as H3K27ac, and tracked deposition of transcriptional activators such as Med1, whose deletion results in ablation of renin expression and low blood pressure.
Using the rank ordering of super-enhancers, epigenetic rewriting, and enhancer deletion analysis, we found that renin cells harbor a unique set of super-enhancers that determine their identity. The most prominent renin super-enhancer may act as a chromatin sensor of signals that convey the physiologic status of the organism, and is responsible for the transformation of renin cell descendants to the renin phenotype, a fundamental process to ensure homeostasis. Belyea, Maria Luisa S. Sequeira-Lopez, R. Ariel Gomez.
ASXL1 is frequently mutated in myeloid malignancies and is known to co-occur with other gene mutations.
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However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the leukemogenesis associated with ASXL1 and cooperating mutations remain to be elucidated. Here, we report that Asxl1 loss cooperated with haploinsufficiency of Nf1, a negative regulator of the RAS signaling pathway, to accelerate the development of myeloid leukemia in mice. The hyperactive MYC and BRD9 transcription programs were correlated with elevated H3K4 trimethylation at the promoter regions of genes involving these pathways.
This study sheds light on the effect of cooperation between epigenetic alterations and signaling pathways on accelerating the progression of myeloid malignancies and provides a rational therapeutic strategy for the treatment of myeloid malignancies with ASXL1 and RAS pathway gene mutations. Thiazolidinediones TZDs are the only antidiabetic drugs that reverse insulin resistance. They have been a valuable asset in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, but their side effects have curtailed widespread use in the clinic. These findings should revitalize the quest to employ insulin sensitization as a first-line approach to managing type 2 diabetes.
However, recent studies showed that pDCs induce immune suppression and promote tumor growth in human ovarian cancer and myeloma. The molecular mechanisms underlying pDC acquisition of these properties are unknown. This study reveals a novel mechanism underlying how MM tumors educate pDCs in their microenvironment and provides new targets for improving the treatment of MM. Human endogenous retroviruses hERVs are remnants of exogenous retroviruses that have integrated into the genome throughout evolution.
We explored two mechanisms by which hERV expression may influence the tumor immune microenvironment in ccRCC: i RIG-I—like signaling and ii retroviral antigen activation of adaptive immunity. We demonstrated the ability of hERV signatures associated with these immune mechanisms to predict patient survival in ccRCC, independent of clinical staging and molecular subtyping.
We identified potential tumor-specific hERV epitopes with evidence of translational activity through the use of a ccRCC ribosome profiling Ribo-Seq dataset, validated their ability to bind HLA in vitro, and identified the presence of MHC tetramer—positive T cells against predicted epitopes. Christof C. Smith, Kathryn E. Beckermann, Dante S. Bortone, Aguirre A. De Cubas, Lisa M. Bixby, Samuel J. Wallen, Matthew I.
Milowsky, William Y. Kim, W. Parker, Jonathan S. Serody, Sara R. Selitsky, Benjamin G. To understand the immunologic basis for the different efficacies of the vaccines, we compared immune responses to the vaccines in adults 50 to 85 years old. Myron J. Levin, Miranda E. Kroehl, Michael J. Recurrent Staphylococcus aureus skin abscesses are a defining feature of this syndrome. A widely held hypothesis that defects in peripheral Th17 differentiation confer this susceptibility has never been directly evaluated. This was associated with reduced IL family signaling in blister-infiltrating cells and defective epithelial cell function.
Ian A. Myles, Erik D. Anderson, Noah J.